SF4203 Ground Improvement Techniques Syllabus:

SF4203 Ground Improvement Techniques Syllabus – Anna University PG Syllabus Regulation 2021


 Students will be exposed to various problems associated with soil deposits and methods to evaluate them. The different techniques will be taught to them to improve the characteristics of difficult soils as well as design techniques required to implement various ground improvement methods.


Scope and necessity of ground improvement in Geotechnical engineering basic concepts. Drainage – Ground Water lowering by well points, deep wells, vacuum and electro-osmotic methods. Stabilization by thermal and freezing techniques – Applications.


Insitu compaction of granular and cohesive soils, Shallow and Deep compaction methods – Sand piles – Concept, design, factors influencing compaction. Blasting and dynamic consolidation – design and relative merits of various methods – Soil liquefaction mitigation methods – Case studies.


Preloading with sand drains, fabric drains, wick drains – theories of sand drain – Stone column with and without encased – lime column – functions – methods of installation – design, estimation of load carrying capacity and settlement. Root piles and soil nailing – methods of installation – Design and Applications – case studies.


Reinforcement – Principles and basic mechanism of reinforced earth, simple design: Synthetic and natural fiber based Geotextiles and their applications. Filtration, drainage, separation, erosion control – case studies.


Grouting – Types of grout – Suspension and solution grouts – Basic requirements of grout. Grouting equipment – injection methods – jet grouting – grout monitoring – Electro – Chemical stabilization – Stabilization with cement, lime – Stabilization of expansive clays – case studies.


On completion of the course, the student is expected to be able to
CO1 identify and evaluate the deficiencies in the deposits of the given project area and improve its characteristics by hydraulic modifications
CO2 improve the ground characteristics by mechanical modifications using various method and design the system
CO3 improve the ground characteristics by physical modifications using various method and design the system
CO4 improve the characteristics of soils by various reinforcement techniques and design
CO5 Analyse the ground and decide the suitable chemical method for improving its characteristics


1. Pappala, A.J., Huang,J., Han, J., and Hoyos, L.R., Ground Improvement and Geosynthetics; Geotechnical special publication No.207, Geo Institute, ASCE, 2010
2. Cox, B.R., and Grifiths S.C., Practical Recommendation for Evaluation and mitigation of Soil Liquefaction in Arkansas, (Project Report), 2010.
3. Day, R.W., Foundation Engineering Handbook, McGraw – Hill Companies, Inc. 2006.
4. Rowe, R.K., Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
5. Das, B.M., Principles of Foundation Engineering, Fourth Edition, PWS Publishing, 1999.
6. Moseley, M.P., Ground Treatment, Blackie Academic and Professionals, 1998.
7. Koerner, R.M., Designing with Geosynthetics, Third Edition, Prentice Hall 1997.
8. Hehn, R.W., Practical Guide to Grouting of Underground Structures, ASCE, 1996.
9. Jewell, R.A., Soil Reinforcement with Geotextiles, CIRIA, London, 1996.
10. Koerner, R.M. and Welsh, J.P., Construction and Geotechnical Engineering using Synthetic Fabrics, John Wiley, 1990.
11. Han,J., Principles and Practice of Ground Improvement, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, Canada 2015.
12. Jones, J.E.P., Earth Reinforcement and Soil Structure, Butterworths, 1985.
13. Manfred R. Hausmann, Engineering Principles of Ground Modifications, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York, 1990.