Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR)

Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR): Rated capacity of a particular axle system, including springs, brakes, wheels and tyres.

Formula car

Formula car: A single seat racing car with exposed wheels. Freewheel. A mechanical device that engages the driving member to impart motion to a driven member in one direction but not the other; also called overrunning clutch.


Flywheel: A heavy wheel mounted on the engine crankshaft to smoothen the engine speed and also to carry the pistons beyond dead centres or during idle strokes.

Fluid flywheel or Hydraulic coupling

Fluid flywheel or Hydraulic coupling: An alternative to clutch, uses fluid for transmitting the torque. It is also called hydraulic coupling.

Final drive ratios

Final drive ratios: The ratio of the road wheel speed to the speed of the gear box (transmission) output shaft.

Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP)

Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP): Continuous mat or woven fibres impregnated with plastic resins to form a light weight, but extremely strong material which may be stronger than steel. Commonly used fibres are of aramid (Kevlar), carbon and glass.

Fibre optics

Fibre optics: Transfer of light through glass fibres.

Fibre glass

Fibre glass: A mixture of glass fibres and resin that when cured (hardened) produces a very light and strong material.


Fender: The panel of the automobile body mounted above the wheels.


Fastback: A car with the roof sloping smoothly from front to rear.

Fading of brakes

Fading of brakes: The decrease in the effectiveness of brakes with prolonged application. This is, however, reversible and usual effectiveness is restored when the brakes cool off.

Estate car

Estate car: A saloon car with the passenger roof extended right upto the rear end and the rear door for loading with rear seats usually collapsible.


Ergonomics: Suitability of a vehicle, especially the controls, for human habitation and use.

Electric screw driver

Electric screw driver: A tool resembling a pistol which can accept screw driver bits of different sizes.

Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

Electronic Control Unit (ECU): A digital computer that controls vehicle system (engine, transmission, brake, etc.) functions based on input received from various sensors.